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It’s an anatomy cake of SCIENCE!!!!

The Pancreas Center
They have a cloaca into which the urinary and genital passages open, but not a swim bladder. I read how if your not balancing the meals appropriately then you can cause more problems. The Chronic Form Of Pancreatitis. Gastrointestinal Inflammation The term inflammatory bowel disease IBD describes a group of disorders in which the intestines become inflamed. Gills consist of threadlike structures called filaments.

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How Your Digestive System Works

How is this possible? Yeast need sugars to feed and the sugars are supplied through the carbohydrates. Raw meat diets have low sugar content and in turn starve out the yeast. I just found your website. Is your raw food diet good for her? Also, I was always told giving little dogs bones is bad for their stomach. Can you tell me what you are feeding your dog? You can view the dog food recipe by clicking here.

This recipe does not contain bones. It does contain finely crushed egg shells for calcium. My vet now wants him on Science Diet for intestinal issues, I want to start feeding him food made at home so that I know exactly what is in the food. I know I have to go with a low fat, high fiber food mix.

I prefer to feed chicken or turkey for protein as well as a mix of gluten free rice, ground flax, and a mix of grains. Can dogs eat peas, carrots, squash, pumpkin, corn, etc.?

Dogs can eat the vegetables but not digest them well. The vegetables need to be thoroughly cooked and finely chopped or blended. You can use lean meats and fish oil as a fat source. You can click here to view a good fish oil supplement for dogs. I need some input! I have a 6 month old American Bully who has had several stomach issues. She has had constant diarrhea issues, and last week she began throwing up a lot. Followed by having runny stool with blood in it. I rushed her to the vet.

One vet said she could of possibly have fabric in her stomach from chewing her bed up another vet said it was just a sensitive stomach and to switch her from Nature Variety Instinct what I was feeding her prior to her getting sick and throwing up which is a grain free diet to the prescription Hills ID Gastrointestinal for sensitive stomachs.

What should I do????? You may want to try the yeast starvation dog food recipe. Generally dogs digest this recipe well. Or try the easy raw dog food recipe first and see how she does on that dog food. Hi there, I am interested in started a raw food diet for my female German Shepard rescue Amora, she has been having a lot of stomach issues in the past 2 months, went from chicken bagged buffalo blue dog food to lamb and brown rice to cooked chicken and rice when they finally discovered shes potentially has an allergy to chicken , beef and lamb, she is now on Holistic Select, getting a few hard boiled eggs every few days.

She hates it and is now on meal 3 of not eating, so my question to you is; can I sub out the beef for turkey and skip the rice and use another filler instead, if you know of one that would be wonderful because we are trying to eliminate any and all grains from her diet. I hope to hear back from you.

Try feeding the chicken and rice dog food recipe , substitute sweet potato for the white rice. This recipe is nutritious and dogs love it. Obviously, your website has explained this thoroughly and since we switched to a gluten free food, she has been much better.

In the last 6 months, she has had problems with what we found out recently was a torn acl. Is there anything you would suggest to help her along with this change in her diet?

We are also giving her raw beef bones to supplement calcium and help keep her teeth clean, she loves them and her teeth are as clean as a puppy now! Thanks for any advice you might have to help us with the injury issue. Just keep it up and see how she does. This regime of prescription food and monthly vitamin injections has for the most part improved her issues over the past year.

However, she does go through phases still of not showing interest in food and throwing up the yellow bile. I am not comfortable with the ingredients in the prescription food and am searching for a more pure and natural diet for my sweet girl.

I wondered what your thoughts might be and if you have any experience with these types of intestinal issues? Thank you for your time! Did the lab culture the pathogen? Did they give a possible cause? Personally, I think it is alway best to feed an animal food they are designed to eat.

Doing this usually solves a host of problems. Thank you for your reply! I am going to take your recipe to my vet and talk to her about switching the diet…I agree that providing a more natural what she is designed to eat has got to be healthier than pumping her full of medicine and prescription food!

Sounds like a good idea but brace yourself for negative feedback. Many veterinarians are against homemade dog foods and have very little training in nutrition. Ed, I definitely agree with your comment about vets and homemade food! But in all fairness to vets at least mine, whom I love they are NOT typically trained in nutrition and food.

They also are a bit eager in my experience to prescribe antibiotics without knowing the underlying cause. But I also find this to be true of human physicians as well. Feeding and caring for dogs for me is as important as feeding and caring for a child. My dogs ARE my children. And that includes their treats as well. The pet food industry is a huge money making machine, and unfortunately, we Americans are led astray by their advertising, their lack of information of contents and origin, and the lack of regulation of food processing.

I am stepping down. But I hope more dog owners will find your site and heed your comments. It is up to US the owners and care takers to get the best for our dogs. My best friend is a 13 year old female Rottie. When she does throw up, It comes up with very little effort or distress.

Sometimes its undigested food, sometimes its white stuff…. Everything else about her seems fine. Gums are red, eyes are fine, personality is normal. She was, for a few weeks feed bread, by neighbor who was dog sitting…He meant no harm…but…bread is bad for dogs digestive systems, yes?

Hi Grace, I came in search of a possible solution to help my pup gain some weight and stumbled upon your question. The symptoms of your gal match the symptoms of the condition that my 10 month old pup is afflicted with. Another form of it is neurological. The nerves that tell the muscles of the esophagus to move food down cease to do so. I have to liquify my pups food and feed him on stairs so that gravity can help get his food into his stomach, but otherwise he leads a very normal life.

I started feeding her boiled chicken and rice and my once very fussy eater gobbled it up. Blood is gone, stools are becoming more solid. I want to try one of your diets — not sure if it should be raw or cooked; I want to stick to chicken at least at first because of the colitis. Also, what about switching between chicken and beef — can you do that, or do you have to do the 24 hour fast?

Switching between homemade dog food recipes does not require a fast. I just posted a chicken and rice dog food recipe that may work for you. Any other advice to make her more healthy and have more normal stools would be appreciated.

Linda PS Sadie says thanks for the delicious recipe — no more fussy eating! I feed him a liquid diet in an upright position 4 times per day and he gets LOTS of exercise. Thank you very much for your time and possible advice. You may want to try the chicken and rice dog food recipe. Pass this through a blender and it should be ok.

Dogs metabolize fat well. High carbohydrate content in kibble seem to be more responsible for weight gain. I have just start my research about raw foods. I have a 5 year old Great Pyrenees who is having difficulties having bowel movements. I have taken him to the vet multiple times and after many enemas and laxatives he seemed fine.

However, they have told us to start putting metamucil on his food regularly as he would not eat the high fiber diet we started putting him on. The dermis of bony fish typically contains relatively little of the connective tissue found in tetrapods. Instead, in most species, it is largely replaced by solid, protective bony scales.

Apart from some particularly large dermal bones that form parts of the skull , these scales are lost in tetrapods , although many reptiles do have scales of a different kind, as do pangolins. Cartilaginous fish have numerous tooth-like denticles embedded in their skin, in place of true scales.

Sweat glands and sebaceous glands are both unique to mammals , but other types of skin glands are found in fish. Fish typically have numerous individual mucus -secreting skin cells that aid in insulation and protection, but may also have poison glands , photophores , or cells that produce a more watery, serous fluid.

Instead, the colour of the skin is largely due to chromatophores in the dermis , which, in addition to melanin, may contain guanine or carotenoid pigments. Many species, such as flounders , change the colour of their skin by adjusting the relative size of their chromatophores.

The outer body of many fish is covered with scales , which are part of the fish's integumentary system. The scales originate from the mesoderm skin , and may be similar in structure to teeth.

Some species are covered instead by scutes. Others have no outer covering on the skin. Most fish are covered in a protective layer of slime mucus. The lateral line is a sense organ used to detect movement and vibration in the surrounding water. For example, fish can use their lateral line system to follow the vortices produced by fleeing prey. In most species, it consists of a line of receptors running along each side of the fish. Photophores are light-emitting organs which appears as luminous spots on some fishes.

The light can be produced from compounds during the digestion of prey, from specialized mitochondrial cells in the organism called photocytes, or associated with symbiotic bacteria , and are used for attracting food or confusing predators.

Fins are the most distinctive features of fish. They are either composed of bony spines or rays protruding from the body with skin covering them and joining them together, either in a webbed fashion as seen in most bony fish or similar to a flipper as seen in sharks. Apart from the tail or caudal fin , fins have no direct connection with the spine and are supported by muscles only. Their principal function is to help the fish swim.

Fins can also be used for gliding or crawling, as seen in the flying fish and frogfish. Fins located in different places on the fish serve different purposes, such as moving forward, turning, and keeping an upright position. For every fin, there are a number of fish species in which this particular fin has been lost during evolution. In bony fish, most fins may have spines or rays.

A fin may contain only spiny rays, only soft rays, or a combination of both. If both are present, the spiny rays are always anterior.

Spines are generally stiff, sharp and unsegmented. Rays are generally soft, flexible, segmented, and may be branched. This segmentation of rays is the main difference that distinguishes them from spines; spines may be flexible in certain species, but never segmented. Spines have a variety of uses.

In catfish , they are used as a form of defense; many catfish have the ability to lock their spines outwards. Triggerfish also use spines to lock themselves in crevices to prevent them being pulled out.

Lepidotrichia are bony, bilaterally-paired, segmented fin rays found in bony fishes. They develop around actinotrichia as part of the dermal exoskeleton. Lepidotrichia may have some cartilage or bone in them as well.

They are actually segmented and appear as a series of disks stacked one on top of another. The genetic basis for the formation of the fin rays is thought to be genes coding for the proteins actinodin 1 and actinodin 2. As with other vertebrates, the intestines of fish consist of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. In most higher vertebrates, the small intestine is further divided into the duodenum and other parts. In fish, the divisions of the small intestine are not as clear, and the terms anterior intestine or proximal intestine may be used instead of duodenum.

It commonly has a number of pyloric caeca , small pouch-like structures along its length that help to increase the overall surface area of the organ for digesting food.

There is no ileocaecal valve in teleosts, with the boundary between the small intestine and the rectum being marked only by the end of the digestive epithelium. Instead, the digestive part of the gut forms a spiral intestine , connecting the stomach to the rectum.

In this type of gut, the intestine itself is relatively straight, but has a long fold running along the inner surface in a spiral fashion, sometimes for dozens of turns.

This fold creates a valve-like structure that greatly increases both the surface area and the effective length of the intestine.

The lining of the spiral intestine is similar to that of the small intestine in teleosts and non-mammalian tetrapods. Hagfish have no spiral valve at all, with digestion occurring for almost the entire length of the intestine, which is not subdivided into different regions.

The pyloric caecum is a pouch, usually peritoneal , at the beginning of the large intestine. It receives faecal material from the ileum , and connects to the ascending colon of the large intestine. It is present in most amniotes , and also in lungfish. Their purpose is to increase the overall surface area of the digestive epithelium, therefore optimizing the absorption of sugars, amino acids, and dipeptides, among other nutrients.

As with other vertebrates, the relative positions of the esophageal and duodenal openings to the stomach remain relatively constant. As a result, the stomach always curves somewhat to the left before curving back to meet the pyloric sphincter. However, lampreys , hagfishes , chimaeras , lungfishes , and some teleost fish have no stomach at all, with the esophagus opening directly into the intestine. These fish consume diets that either require little storage of food, or no pre-digestion with gastric juices, or both.

The kidneys of fish are typically narrow, elongated organs, occupying a significant portion of the trunk. They are similar to the mesonephros of higher vertebrates reptiles, birds and mammals. The kidneys contain clusters of nephrons , serviced by collecting ducts which usually drain into a mesonephric duct. However, the situation is not always so simple. In cartilaginous fish there is also a shorter duct which drains the posterior metanephric parts of the kidney, and joins with the mesonephric duct at the bladder or cloaca.

Indeed, in many cartilaginous fish, the anterior portion of the kidney may degenerate or cease to function altogether in the adult. They consist of a row of nephrons, each emptying directly into the mesonephric duct. The spleen is found in nearly all vertebrates. It is a non-vital organ, similar in structure to a large lymph node.

It acts primarily as a blood filter, and plays important roles in regard to red blood cells and the immune system. Even in these animals, there is a diffuse layer of haematopoeitic tissue within the gut wall, which has a similar structure to red pulp, and is presumed to be homologous with the spleen of higher vertebrates.

The liver is a large vital organ present in all fish. It has a wide range of functions, including detoxification , protein synthesis , and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion. It is very susceptible to contamination by organic and inorganic compounds because they can accumulate over time and cause potentially life-threatening conditions. Because of the liver's capacity for detoxification and storage of harmful components, it is often used as an environmental biomarker.

Fish have what is often described as a two-chambered heart , [34] consisting of one atrium to receive blood and one ventricle to pump it, [35] in contrast to three chambers two atria, one ventricle of amphibian and most reptile hearts and four chambers two atria, two ventricles of mammal and bird hearts.

Ostial valves, consisting of flap-like connective tissues, prevent blood from flowing backward through the compartments. The ventral aorta delivers blood to the gills where it is oxygenated and flows, through the dorsal aorta , into the rest of the body.

In tetrapods , the ventral aorta has divided in two; one half forms the ascending aorta , while the other forms the pulmonary artery. The circulatory systems of all vertebrates , are closed. Fish have the simplest circulatory system, consisting of only one circuit, with the blood being pumped through the capillaries of the gills and on to the capillaries of the body tissues.

This is known as single cycle circulation. In the adult fish, the four compartments are not arranged in a straight row but, instead form an S-shape with the latter two compartments lying above the former two. This relatively simpler pattern is found in cartilaginous fish and in the ray-finned fish.

In teleosts , the conus arteriosus is very small and can more accurately be described as part of the aorta rather than of the heart proper. The conus arteriosus is not present in any amniotes , presumably having been absorbed into the ventricles over the course of evolution. Similarly, while the sinus venosus is present as a vestigial structure in some reptiles and birds, it is otherwise absorbed into the right atrium and is no longer distinguishable. The swim bladder or gas bladder is an internal organ that contributes to the ability of a fish to control its buoyancy, and thus to stay at the current water depth, ascend, or descend without having to waste energy in swimming.

The bladder is found only in the bony fishes. In the more primitive groups like some minnows , bichirs and lungfish , the bladder is open to the esophagus and doubles as a lung. It is often absent in fast swimming fishes such as the tuna and mackerel families. The condition of a bladder open to the esophagus is called physostome , the closed condition physoclist.

In the latter, the gas content of the bladder is controlled through a rete mirabilis , a network of blood vessels effecting gas exchange between the bladder and the blood. Fishes of the superorder Ostariophysi possess a structure called the Weberian apparatus , a modification which allow them to hear better. This ability which may well explain the marked success of otophysian fishes. This allows the transmission of vibrations to the inner ear.

A fully functioning Weberian apparatus consists of the swim bladder, the Weberian ossicles, a portion of the anterior vertebral column, and some muscles and ligaments. Fish reproductive organs include testes and ovaries. In most species, gonads are paired organs of similar size, which can be partially or totally fused. The genital papilla is a small, fleshy tube behind the anus in some fishes, from which the sperm or eggs are released; the sex of a fish often can be determined by the shape of its papilla.

Most male fish have two testes of similar size. In the case of sharks , the testis on the right side is usually larger. The primitive jawless fish have only a single testis, located in the midline of the body, although even this forms from the fusion of paired structures in the embryo.

Under a tough membranous shell, the tunica albuginea , the testis of some teleost fish, contains very fine coiled tubes called seminiferous tubules. The tubules are lined with a layer of cells germ cells that from puberty into old age, develop into sperm cells also known as spermatozoa or male gametes. The developing sperm travel through the seminiferous tubules to the rete testis located in the mediastinum testis , to the efferent ducts , and then to the epididymis where newly created sperm cells mature see spermatogenesis.

The sperm move into the vas deferens , and are eventually expelled through the urethra and out of the urethral orifice through muscular contractions. However, most fish do not possess seminiferous tubules. Instead, the sperm are produced in spherical structures called sperm ampullae. These are seasonal structures, releasing their contents during the breeding season, and then being reabsorbed by the body.

Before the next breeding season, new sperm ampullae begin to form and ripen. The ampullae are otherwise essentially identical to the seminiferous tubules in higher vertebrates, including the same range of cell types. In terms of spermatogonia distribution, the structure of teleosts testes has two types: Fish can present cystic or semi-cystic spermatogenesis in relation to the release phase of germ cells in cysts to the seminiferous tubules lumen.

Many of the features found in ovaries are common to all vertebrates, including the presence of follicular cells and tunica albuginea There may be hundreds or even millions of fertile eggs present in the ovary of a fish at any given time. Fresh eggs may be developing from the germinal epithelium throughout life. Corpora lutea are found only in mammals, and in some elasmobranch fish; in other species, the remnants of the follicle are quickly resorbed by the ovary.

In some elasmobranchs , only the right ovary develops fully. In the primitive jawless fish , and some teleosts, there is only one ovary, formed by the fusion of the paired organs in the embryo.

Fish ovaries may be of three types: In the first type, the oocytes are released directly into the coelomic cavity and then enter the ostium , then through the oviduct and are eliminated. Secondary gymnovarian ovaries shed ova into the coelom from which they go directly into the oviduct. In the third type, the oocytes are conveyed to the exterior through the oviduct.

Cystovaries characterize most teleosts, where the ovary lumen has continuity with the oviduct. Fish typically have quite small brains relative to body size compared with other vertebrates, typically one-fifteenth the brain mass of a similarly sized bird or mammal.

Fish brains are divided into several regions. At the front are the olfactory lobes , a pair of structures that receive and process signals from the nostrils via the two olfactory nerves.

The olfactory lobes are very large in fish that hunt primarily by smell, such as hagfish, sharks, and catfish. Learn what to eat and drink to get through a bout o Digestive Health 7 Superfoods That Help Digestion You are what you eat, but more importantly, your digestion reflects what you eat. Try out our superstar list of good foods for digestion. Although it's natural to flush and hit the sink without a second glance, taking a peek at what's in the toilet bowl can be Digestive Health 10 Tips for Better Digestive Health Your lifestyle and your choice of foods can affect the way your body digests what you eat.

Drinking water, adding fiber, and exercising all contribute Digestive Health Excessive Gas and the Foods You Eat To avoid embarrassing intestinal gas and uncomfortable bloating, know which gas-producing foods to limit.

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